Hm, no, you cannot query yesterday's leader board.
There are two ways to accomplish this:
1) Create a standalone app that is running regularly (maybe using the Flox Ruby command line tool) and downloads the leaderboards. When the date changes, it can then store the leader board to a special entity that your game can load.
2) Store the high scores of a player in an entity type that has "createdAt" (or "updatedAt") and "score" indexed. Then you can query the top 3 of a given date at any time. This costs more operations than approach (1), though.
I hope that helps!